Fitness for beginners – what you need to know and how to choose a training program?
Fitness is one of the most popular types of sports in the modern world. But, unlike sports – without an emphasis on bodybuilding – the goal of fitness is not to achieve records, but the desire to lead a healthy lifestyle. In this article, we will talk about the effects that you can achieve by doing this or that type of fitness, and what you need to know for beginners.
Life in a metropolis is now difficult to imagine without fitness. Maintaining good physical shape affects success in all areas of life, especially in work and family.
What is fitness? ↑
The word fitness comes from the English adjective “fit” – “in good shape, healthy”. But this concept includes not only physical exercises. Fitness is also the regime of the day, including recovery after classes, relaxation, and proper nutrition, that is, a completely healthy lifestyle.
A set of fitness exercises and a diet are selected individually – depending on age, state of health, contraindications, goals (weight loss, weight gain, etc.), structure and features of the figure.
In detail about the various diets with and without loads, we wrote in the articles:
- Exercise Slimming Nutrition – Recommendations
- Nutrition for maintaining physical fitness during exercise: dietary recommendations, menus and individual calculation of daily energy consumption
- Nutrition for people not involved in sports and exercise – recommendations
We also recommend reading the article ” 9″ dietary “mistakes ” and ” 11 ways to speed up metabolism. Lose weight without loads! “.
Setting goals is an important step in fitness
There are several fitness goals. The choice of training program depends on the choice of goal.
- weight loss, slim, beautiful figure.
- health promotion, improvement of the cardiovascular system, joints,
- improving overall well-being, endurance of the body.
- strengthening and increasing muscle mass.
There are two main types of physical activity – aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
Aerobic exercise is not only aerobics itself, but also running, cycling, swimming, that is, those types of physical activity when the body uses oxygen to release energy, carbohydrates and fats burn and provide energy for working muscles. Aerobic exercise has an effective improving effect on health, improves the functioning of the cardiovascular system, supports the general physical form, and accelerates metabolism.
Anaerobic exercise is a weight lifting aimed at building muscle volume and strength.
Often, stretching – gymnastics is combined with aerobic and anaerobic loads to increase endurance by static loads and stretching muscles, ligaments and joints.
Depending on the goals that you set for yourself, choose the types of fitness that suit you.
Types of training for burning fat, tone, building muscle
Types of Fitness ↑
There are various types of fitness: aerobics, water aerobics, shaping, fitness dancing and just dancing, fitball, gyms, stretching (callanetics, Pilates, body gymnastics and qigong breathing exercises). Yoga stands apart, it can be either just stretching or a full aerobic or even anaerobic load.
The choice of direction depends on the goal that you want to achieve with fitness.
- Classical dance and other aerobic modifications – this type of fitness combines exercises for developing muscles and plastics and breathing exercises. Aerobics strengthens the cardiovascular system, helps to reduce weight and improve body shape. Very effective in burning calories.
In aerobics, there are a huge number of directions. The most popular dance areas are aerobics, dance, afro, latino, funk and others.
- Water aerobics – a special type of aerobics. Training takes place not in the hall, but in the pool. Additional load and calorie consumption is achieved due to water resistance.
- Stretching– muscle stretching exercises that restore flexibility to the body. This type of fitness helps break down fat in the subcutaneous layers and get rid of cellulite, improves blood circulation.
- Pilates– training for the abs, back muscles, abdomen and pelvis, especially recommended for people with a violation of posture, to recover from injuries.
- Callanetics– exercises from oriental gymnastics with elements of breathing exercises. Its basis is stretching exercises.
- Bodyflex– breathing exercises with simultaneous stretching and muscle tension.
- Fitness yoga – exercises are combined with elements of breathing practices, alternating dynamic and static movements. Classes are aimed not so much at bringing into a state of inner harmony, but rather about strengthening the flexibility and endurance of the body.
- Fitball (gymnastic ball) – exercises are performed on the ball in different positions, creating the so-called muscle corset around the spine. This type of fitness strengthens the abs, improves posture. Fitball exercises can be done at home.
- Exercises with weighting (what is often understood by the word “fitness” now), the so-called classic fitness – dumbbells, weights, barbells, expanders and so on. As a rule, training takes place in the gym. They help strengthen muscles and develop muscles. This includes bodybuilding, and crossfit, and powerlifting and other power types of activity aimed at muscle hypertrophy.
You will find videos with examples of performing exercises from classical, indoor, fitness at the bottom of the page and materials supplementing the article.
Read more about the exercises that are available to everyone and almost anywhere, read in the materials ” How to get in shape? We improve physical fitness and strengthen the body! “” Fitness at home and in the office, or How to keep fit “,” Kardiogimnastika the procedure Amosov , “” Training on the whole body with expanders: use the simulator efficiently “,” to slim thighs exercises and buttocks tightened , “” for posture exercises , chest muscles, thin waist and strong abs for girls at home . ”
Fitness program selection ↑
The choice of direction and training program depends on the goal that you want to achieve. And interest in specific activity plays a role, of course. The higher the interest and motivation , the better the results.
All types of fitness, as well as walking (walking or sports) are suitable for general strengthening of the body. For weight loss and bodybuilding – all types of aerobics, cycling, jogging, fitball, strength training.
To strengthen the cardiovascular and respiratory systems aerobics, cycling (including a stationary bike), swimming and running (treadmill) are good. To strengthen the respiratory system – yoga and bodyflex.
Strength training is needed to increase muscle mass.
In order to choose the right set of exercises and the appropriate diet, you need to consult a trainer.
Fitness for men and women ↑
It should be remembered that weight loss programs for men and women are significantly different. This is due to the physiological characteristics of organisms of both sexes. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the physical condition of the body and the age of the person.
Fitness classes for women 18-30 years old ↑
At this age, as a rule, the body copes well with the loads, metabolic processes go smoothly. Without much effort, a lot of calories are consumed. It is at this age that muscles are strengthened, a foundation for the future is created: the body as a whole becomes stronger in the long term.
The best option for classes is the alternation of various loads. For example, half an hour of charging every day and / or three lessons per week for an hour. It is good to do a half-hour exercise every day for stretching and endurance (for example, yoga), and to supplement this activity with an hour jog / bike, swimming and weight training.
And in addition: it’s very good to walk a lot, try not to use the elevator when you can climb stairs.
Fitness classes for women 30–40 years old ↑
At this age, the female body, not experiencing stress, spends 125 calories less per day than at a younger age, fat deposits accumulate, bones and joints age. Possible lethargy, rapid fatigue of the body.
Experts advise at this age to do fitness four hours a week, and spend an hour a week stretching. Useful aerobics, water aerobics, swimming, gym classes with simulators and weighting. The best option is a combination of aerobics and exercise in the gym.
To maintain health and a slim figure, it is necessary to train the musculoskeletal system, especially not only skeletal muscles, but also the skeleton and ligaments (to combat age-related diseases, such as osteoarthritis ). The best option is a combination of aerobic exercises and exercises in the gym (anaerobic exercise).
Fitness for 40-50 year old women ↑
Starting from the age of forty, bones lose up to 1% of their mass annually, and due to hormonal disorders, fat deposits appear. To reduce the manifestation of these signs, you must regularly engage in sports activity. Experts advise doing stretching exercises for at least one hour every week, do aerobics or dancing at the fitness center or at home for two to three hours. Hiking, cycling, swimming are useful at any age.
Fitness classes for women over 50 and older ↑
After 50 years, a woman begins to lose muscle mass, the body compensates for it due to fat. Weight gain negatively affects the cardiovascular system and the condition of the joints. At this age, two hours a week should be devoted to cardio and one hour to stretching exercises. Walking, swimming, morning exercises (yoga and qigong), exercises with small weights (dumbbells of small weight of 1-2 kg) are recommended, this helps to maintain muscle tone, training of the heart and joints.
After 60 years, a gentle mode of work with a minimum load is recommended. The regularity of classes is very important, it is advisable to conduct classes with a trainer, with it will be determined the individual load, the most optimal for the body. Experts recommend half-hour classes five times a week. Walking, cycling, swimming, yoga and Pilates are very useful.
Training for men ↑
In the bodies of men and women, on average, the same number of fat cells, however, they differ in the size and functioning of the enzymes. The male body stores fat more slowly and burns it much faster. Men get fat because they are sleep deprived and a lot of nervous. But men lose weight more due to the consumption of fats, rather than muscle tissue, unlike women.
The main rules for losing weight, gaining and manifesting muscles for men:
- You need to find your personal meal regimen. For example, fractional nutrition – four to five small meals throughout the day. But other options are possible.
- Combine cardio and strength training. The triathlon is good in this matter (running, swimming and cycling are included in the program), walking, playing football, plus exercises for the legs, arms, abs, chest and back with weights.
- It is not necessary to completely exclude favorite foods and alcohol from the diet. Two or three times a week, you can eat cake, fried meat, drink a glass of wine or beer. But on other days, follow the regimen and adhere to the principles of proper nutrition. Eat when you are hungry, and do not jam stress.
- Drink at least 2 liters of pure water per day.
- Sleep at least 7 hours a day.
About how to build muscle, and proper nutrition, we described in detail in the materials
Therefore, now this topic is not particularly affected. It is important to say only that it will be necessary to work with all the muscles of the body, because the body trains evenly and you can’t lose weight or build up in only one place.
It is also important to understand that everyone has their own body structure. The same effort by two different people leads to different results. And muscle volume depends on the amount of fiber. If you naturally have a lot of fiber, you will build muscle faster.
We recommend reading the article “ Training and Nutrition: Basic Errors of Beginner Athletes ”.
The main stages of fitness training ↑
The main stages or periods of classes are the preparatory stage, or warm-up, designed to warm up the body; basic, milestone and recovery (hitch).
Going in for sports, and fitness in particular, it is useful to keep a training diary .
Regardless of the degree of difficulty of the workout, it should begin with a warm-up of muscles, ligaments and joints. For warming up, walking, light running , i.e. exercises aimed at warming up muscles. A warm-up prepares the entire body so that it does not experience severe stress from a sudden change in heart rate. The time allotted for the warm-up should be at least 10-15 minutes.